Monday, October 29, 2012

SAP ABAP Interview Question (SAP Labs, Accenture, IBM , Deloitte , TCS , Infosys)

After Observing many interviews. Finally i come up with the following questions which are mostly asked in all the Big companies including SAP Labs, Accenture, IBM , Deloitte , TCS , Infosys etc…
1. Can we write the code both call transaction and session method in single program?
Ans. Yes it is possible to write call transaction and session in one program.
2. Which BDC you prefer?
Ans. If we want to transfer large amount of data and when we need to use more than one transaction code we prefer session method. For small or less amount of data and for single transaction use call transaction.
(This is more genric answer but you can add more on to this if you have worked on  BDC)
3. When u prefer LSMW?
Ans. When we need to update medium amount of data we use LSMW. LSMW is also used when the person like functional consultant has less programming language.
5. Difference between .include and  .append?
Include structure allows to add one or more structure into structure or table.Also placed positioning anywhere. Upto 6 include structure can be used in a table.
Append structure can be placed only at the end of a structure or table which also stops further insertion of fields.Only one append structure can be used
6. Preformance techniques
1. The sequence of fields must be same as per database table
2. During writing select query write all fields in sequence as per database table.
3. Never write select statements inside loop….endloop.
4. Use st05 SQL trace, se30 run time analysis, code inspector, slin,etc.
5. Use select single * statement instead of select *
6. Always use primary key
7. Use binary search but before using binary search sort that table.
7. How to debug sapscripts ?
Two ways to debug sapscript . first way is goto SE 71 and from menu bar select Utilities->activate debugger .then goto SE38 execute the print program ,it automatically goes to debugging mode …..the other way is , run the program RSTXDBUG in se 38 . execute it . a message will show that debugger is activated .now open the print program in se 38 …u vll notice that the print prgm is automatically diverted to debugging mode.
8. What is partner selection?
Ans. This concept is mainly used in IDOC where u select the partner profile using Tcode We20 .with  Tcode SM59 you create RFC(remote function call) to create communication link to a remote system.
10. What is occurs in internal table?
Ans. Occurs addition to the Declaration will give initial size to that table.occur statement allocates 8kb of memory to the internal table.
11. What is page window?
Ans : page window is nothing but a container of a page ,which uniquely identifies a set of data …for example while creating invoice …we create logo window , billing document header window , customer window , terms and condition window etc …
12. What is the difference between scrolling a table horizontally and vertically..??
Ans: In table control when you scroll a table vertically presentation server needs to call application server to fetch the next record and display in the table while in case of horizontal scroll there is no need to call application server.
13. What are Field Groups?
Ans: A group that combines several fields fewer than one name, at runtime, the INSERT command is used to define which data fields are assigned to which field group are called Field Groups. It should always be a HEADER field group that defines how the extracted data will be sorted; the fields grouped under the HEADER field group sort the data.
14. List the events in ABAP/4 Language?
Ans: The events in ABAP/4 are load of program ,Initialization, Selection Screen, Start of Selection, End of Selection, Top of page, Line selection, User command, End, First.
15.How the values will be passed to RFC Function module PassbyValue or Passbyreference?
Ans: always Pass by Value.
RFC is Remote Function call so it can’t access the values with Pass by reference.
16. Buffering concept usage?
Ans: There are three type of buffer
1 single record
2 generic buffer
3 full buffer
Buffering is use for improve performance. it improves performance  10 to 100 times more
17. Select up to 1 row and select single difference ?
Ans:  Select single fetches first matching record. If more than one matching records are there then only the first matching record will be considered other records will not be taken into account. Where as select up to 1 rows will fetch all the matching records from the database.(Again it will assign only One Record to the internal table/Work area)
18. What are the different buffering methods?
There are two different buffering methods
The system ensures that data transfer between the R/3 System and the database system is as efficient as possible. To do this, it uses the following techniques:
Table buffering: The program accesses data from the buffer of the application server.
Database request buffering: Individual database entries are not read or passed to the database until required by an OPEN SQL statement.
19. Different types of locks?
v  Read lock (shared lock)
Protects read access to an object. The read lock allows other transactions read access but not write access to the locked area of the table.
v  o Write lock (exclusive lock)
Protects write access to an object. The write lock allows other transactions neither read nor write access to the locked area of the table.
v  o Enhanced write lock (exclusive lock without cumulation)
Works like a write lock except that the enhanced write lock also protects from further accesses from the same transaction.
Ans: Chain and end chain are used for multiple field validation in Module pool programming .It is written inside the screen flow logic.
21.How to Debug RFC Function module?
SE38 –> Utilities –> Settings –> ABAP Editor –> Debugging
Activate the external debugging and choose the New Debugger option in ABAP debugger.
Go to the particular place in the code and put break point, pop will appear then choose the HTTP break point.
If you are triggering the RFC from SAP portal make sure that both the user ID should be same
If the users are different then provide the XI/Portal User ID in the users field.
22.Why sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent.?
Ans-: Smartforms create its own function module so it doesn’t need to transport the request through SCC1.As all the Development Object are stored in client independent tables. Whereas Script doesn’t generate  any function module while executing so we need to transport the request number through SCC1.Sap script is stroed in side the client depended table as a sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent.
23. Difference between user exit and BADIs?
Ans: User exit is for single implementation and it is procedural approach while BADIs are for multiple implementation and object oriented approach.
Multiple implementation means Reusability… because we use OOps Concepts for BADI.
24. Control break events in ABAP:-
1. AT-FIRST: This is used when we want to execute the statements before records are processed.
2. AT-LAST: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after all records are processed.
3. AT-NEW: This event is used when we want to execute the statement before group of records are processed.
4. AT-END: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after processing of group of records.
25.I am uploading 100 records out of which say 59th record has error so what will happen if i am using synchronous or asynchronous method of BDC? Can we update the database using local update mode how?
26. Suppose i am writing following code then what will be output?
(Explain the importance of LOAD-OF-PROGRAM Event.If you dont know Tell the interviewer as this event is used in such cases when you want to clear sum buffers or something Before calling that Program)
27. What is TMG?
Ans. TMG stands for Table Maintenance generator. It is a tool available in abap by which we can add or delete multiple records at a time and it is executed or triggered by the transaction code SM30.
28. Difference between select option and ranges ?
Ans. The main difference between select option and ranges is that ranges implicitly or automatically creates internal table with fields like OPTION,LOW,HIGH,SIGN,etc . Where as in case of select option we have to explicitly create internal table.
When u declares a select options it will implicitly declare an internal table (ranges) for you.
While using RANGES syntax u can declare internal table explicitly.
The only need of declaring ranges is when you r not taking input from the user but you want make limit based selection at that time it will be use full e.g. SELECT ** from ** where MATNR in val_range.
here u can use select-option or ranges : val_range.
29. is it possible to bring select option in module pool screens?
Ans.Create a SELECT-OPTIONS in module pool screen using two methods as shown.
Method 1:—-
a) Create a subscreen area in your screen layout where you want to create the select options.
b) In the top include of your module pool program declare a selection screen as a subscreen e.g.
select-options s_matnr for mara-matnr.
c) In the PBO and PAI of the main screen where the select options needs to be created do a call subscreen of the above screen (100).
CALL SUBCREEN sub_area INCLUDING <program> <screen>
This CALL SUBSCREEN statement is necessary for transport of values between screen and program.
Note: All validations of the selection screen fields e.g. the s_matnr field created above should be done in selection screen events like AT SELECTION-SCREEN etc and not in PAI. These selection screen validations etc should be done in the top include only.
Method 2:——-
a) Create 2 separate fields in your screen layout – one for the low value and one for the high value. Insert an icon beside the high value which will call the multiple selections popup screen on user command. Use function module COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG to achieve this.
continued ……
struc_tab_and_field-fieldname = con_cust. ” ‘KUNNR’
struc_tab_and_field-tablename = con_kna1. ” ‘KNA1′.
TITLE = ‘ ‘
text = g_titl1 ” ‘Customers’
tab_and_field = struc_tab_and_field
TABLES RANGE = rng_kunnr
IF NOT rng_kunnr[] IS INITIAL.
* Read the very first entry of the range table and pass it to
* dynpro screen field
*READ TABLE rng_kunnr INDEX 1.
IF sy-subrc = 0.
g_cust = rng_kunnr-low.
You can use the return table rng_kunnr to populate your own internal range table with the values entered by the user. Basically here you are just simulating the work of a select-options parameter by module pool screen elements. we can retrive data using secondary index.explain with simple example
Ans:  First create secondary indexes on required fields of a particular database table.
We can create one primary index and 15 secondary indexes.Once the respective secondary indexes are created write select queries and within select queries specify secondary indexes field name with where clause.
31.How can we handle table control in BDC?
Ans.We can handle table control using line index
Line index indicates which line of Table control is to be use for BDC transaction
Ex -
perform bdc_field using ‘RC29K-AUSKZ(01)’
Indicates 1st line of table control is going to be used for transaction which is Line index of Table Control
32. If i want to execute a BDC program only in background not in foreground is there any option for this?
Ans.The sm37 transaction can be used for running a program in the background. Also in the session method while processing the session you can specify the processing type as background or foreground.
33.How Can We upload a text file having Delimiters in to Legacy System
Ans.For up loading text file we use the pre-defined FM gui_upload. in that FM we have the parameter has_field_seperator for that we assign the default delimiter ‘x’.
‘X’ can provide the Whatever delimiter we used in flat file for separation.
34. What is the land scape in sap.
Ans. In every organisation sap landscape involves three servers viz, Development server, Quality server and Production server. Whatever new development we do as per clients requirement is done in development server. Later to test the developed object we move it to quality server for testing and finally once everything goes clear then the object is moved to production server ,production server data is ready for final business use.
35. Workbench request are client dependent or client independent
Ans. Workbench request are client independent.
(Common Man Workbench request holds the Program , FM etc…. How it can be Client Dependent!!!!)
36. Tell me about workbench request and customization requests.
Ans.Workbench (ABAP Dev) request is client independent when you import it into one system it reflact it in all client in same system, but customized request has to import in that client perticular client where it is created, actually it is client dependent.
Other  Interview questions…
1. Can we write the code/program inside sap script?
2. How will u create sapscripts & smartforms in multiple language?
3.How to execute sap script & smart forms in Background?
4.How to do total & subtotal in scripts & forms?
1.Apart from .include & .append how will u do table enhancement?
2.what r the events of table maintainence generator?
3.what will happen if i use projection view and maintainence view together?
4. I created ZEMP table now i want to add more data but prev. data should not disturb how can i do this?
1.How will u print footers in alv report?
2.How will u edit fields from output list of alv?
1.what r the fields u took during recording for mmo1,me21n?
2.If u want to do bdc for xd01 explain me how will be the flow?
user exits
1.what r enhancement points?
2.How to write customer exits?
3.what is routine? how it is different from user exits?
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